{"_id":"5944235648204800379c14f3","project":"5511fc8c0c1a08190077f90c","version":{"_id":"5511fc8d0c1a08190077f90f","__v":11,"project":"5511fc8c0c1a08190077f90c","createdAt":"2015-03-25T00:08:45.273Z","releaseDate":"2015-03-25T00:08:45.273Z","categories":["5511fc8d0c1a08190077f910","5511fd52c1b13537009f5d31","568ecb0cbeb2700d004717ee","568ecb149ebef90d0087271a","568ecb1cbdb9260d00149d42","56a6a012b3ffe00d00156f1e","56a6bfe37ef6620d00e2f25f","58fbccb5809fc30f00f2dc03","58fbcd136b29580f00d8ff3a","5942ec4d50b8a900373ce9ff","59481476d305c20019295d8c"],"is_deprecated":false,"is_hidden":false,"is_beta":false,"is_stable":true,"codename":"","version_clean":"1.0.0","version":"1.0"},"category":{"_id":"568ecb1cbdb9260d00149d42","version":"5511fc8d0c1a08190077f90f","__v":2,"project":"5511fc8c0c1a08190077f90c","pages":["568ecb3a6e07690d00030a92","56a6be6eb3ffe00d00156f3f"],"sync":{"url":"","isSync":false},"reference":false,"createdAt":"2016-01-07T20:31:24.953Z","from_sync":false,"order":0,"slug":"alpha-sensor-kit","title":"BuzzBox Sensor Kit"},"user":"59440f773ab6710037ab2196","__v":0,"parentDoc":null,"updates":[],"next":{"pages":[],"description":""},"createdAt":"2017-06-16T18:28:38.269Z","link_external":false,"link_url":"","githubsync":"","sync_unique":"","hidden":false,"api":{"results":{"codes":[]},"settings":"","auth":"required","params":[],"url":""},"isReference":false,"order":1,"body":"## Overview \n\n\nThe BzBox Hardware is a custom shield based around the [Particle Photon](https://www.particle.io/) platform designed to monitor and report on the health and status of a beehive.  \n\nThe board includes an integrated Li-Ion battery charging and monitoring circuit, solar power input, an accelerometer, a temperature/humidity/barometric pressure (t/h/bp) sensor, a micro-SD memory card socket, and breakouts for additional sensors add-ons via I2C or analog-input readings. \n\nA secondary board which includes another t/h/bp sensor and an omnidirectional MEMS microphone and amplifier, is used to measure the environment inside of a beehive.\n\nExternal components needed to operate the BuzzBox are the Particle Photon, solar panel, Li-Ion battery, WiFi antenna, and a USB-B-mini cable.  All the components you need are in included in the package.\n\n[block:image]\n{\n  \"images\": [\n    {\n      \"image\": [\n        \"https://files.readme.io/f0d551f-FullSizeRender.jpg\",\n        \"FullSizeRender.jpg\",\n        3024,\n        4032,\n        \"#948164\"\n      ]\n    }\n  ]\n}\n[/block]\n## Component Description\n\nAn overview of the hardware components are shown in the block diagram.  Detailed descriptions of each block are below.  Links to the hardware design files, datasheets, firmware, and more are at the bottom of the document. \n[block:image]\n{\n  \"images\": [\n    {\n      \"image\": [\n        \"https://files.readme.io/368c78d-Screen_Shot_2017-06-30_at_2.29.07_PM.png\",\n        \"Screen Shot 2017-06-30 at 2.29.07 PM.png\",\n        1596,\n        896,\n        \"#e5dccc\"\n      ]\n    }\n  ]\n}\n[/block]\n**Particle Photon**\n\nThe Particle Photon is a tiny WiFi development kit for creating connected projects and products. Sporting a 120MHz ARM Cortex M3 and built-in WiFi, the Photon is not only powerful but easy to use. The small form factor is ideal for IoT projects with cloud connectivity.  An [external 2.4GHz antenna](http://www.mouser.com/Search/ProductDetail.aspx?qs=7h3O1UVlCGNeABMKKg0dsw%3d%3d) is added to increase the WiFi range.\n\nEach set of BzBox Hardware requires a Particle Photon board to be plugged into the headers for it to function.  The beta firmware is written for the Particle platform and the peripheral I/O is mapped accordingly.  Please see Photon documentation available on particle.io for technical specifications.\n\f\n[block:image]\n{\n  \"images\": [\n    {\n      \"image\": [\n        \"https://files.readme.io/afcc32c-Screen_Shot_2017-06-16_at_12.36.30_PM.png\",\n        \"Screen Shot 2017-06-16 at 12.36.30 PM.png\",\n        2404,\n        982,\n        \"#848484\"\n      ],\n      \"caption\": \"\"\n    }\n  ]\n}\n[/block]\n**Pin Descriptions**\n\nPin 1 - VIN:  Input voltage to the Photon from Lithium Polymer battery.  Should be between 3.6 and 5.5 Volts.\n\nPin 2, 21 - GND:  Ground connection for Photon and rest of PCB.\n\nPin 7 - 10, SPI1:  Pins mapped to Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) configuration.   Connected to microSD socket for reading/writing memory card. (not used)\n\nPin 11 - Analog Input:  Optional 0-3.3V 12-bit analog-to-digital input that has a breakout on the PCB (A1-EXT)\n\nPin 12 - AUD IN:  ADC input from microphone amplifier circuit (external connector J3)\n\nPin 13, 14 - I2C:  Inter-chip interface for reading/writing the BME280 t/h/bp sensors, accelerometer, and battery monitoring chips.  Additional devices may be added via the I2C-EXT breakout on the PCB.  4.7kOhm pull-up resistors are already present on the board.\n\nPin 15 - INT: Interrupt input from ADXL345 accelerometer.\n\nPin 16 - CD:  Card-detect input for use with microSD card socket (not used)\n\nPin 24 - 3V3:  Regulated 3.3V output from Photon PCB.  Used as output to power peripheral chips.  100mA MAX.\n\n\n##BQ24074 Li-Po Charger and Power Path Manager\n\n\nThe [BQ24074](www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/bq24074.pdf) circuit is based on the SparkFun Battery Babysitter with slight modifications for our application.  This circuit receives the solar-panel power (V_SOLAR max 10.5V) to simultaneously charge the Lithium-Ion battery and the power the device.  It is currently configured to output a maximum of 1.5A.\n[block:image]\n{\n  \"images\": [\n    {\n      \"image\": [\n        \"https://files.readme.io/6dc19b2-Screen_Shot_2017-06-16_at_12.37.26_PM.png\",\n        \"Screen Shot 2017-06-16 at 12.37.26 PM.png\",\n        1674,\n        948,\n        \"#848484\"\n      ]\n    }\n  ]\n}\n[/block]\nA 10k NTC thermistor from the battery pack may be connected to R24 on the PCB for extra safety precautions.  \n\nThe red LED will light up when the Li-Ion battery is being charged.\n\n\n\n##BQ27441 Fuel Gauge\n\nThe [BQ27441](www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/bq27441-g1.pdf) is also based on the SparkFun Battery Babysitter.  The chip reads the impedance of the battery via a 0.01 Ohm shunt and outputs the voltage, current, state-of-charge-and battery health via the I2C protocol to the Photon MCU.  We read these values within the BzBox firmware and report the significant values to the application server.\n\n[block:image]\n{\n  \"images\": [\n    {\n      \"image\": [\n        \"https://files.readme.io/f5a0d48-Screen_Shot_2017-06-16_at_12.41.12_PM.png\",\n        \"Screen Shot 2017-06-16 at 12.41.12 PM.png\",\n        1704,\n        862,\n        \"#848484\"\n      ]\n    }\n  ]\n}\n[/block]\n##ADXL345 3-axis Accelerometer\n\nThe [ADXL345 accelerometer](www.mouser.com/ds/2/609/ADXL345-879145.pdf) is used in the BzBox for theft detection.  When the BzBox PCB is tilted or jilted, the ADXL345 sends an interrupt signal to the Photon MCU which is then passed on to the application server.  The settings of the ADXL345 are communicated via the I2C protocol during the initial startup of the firmware.\n\n[block:image]\n{\n  \"images\": [\n    {\n      \"image\": [\n        \"https://files.readme.io/ee547c8-Screen_Shot_2017-06-16_at_12.40.23_PM.png\",\n        \"Screen Shot 2017-06-16 at 12.40.23 PM.png\",\n        1740,\n        836,\n        \"#a44c4c\"\n      ]\n    }\n  ]\n}\n[/block]\n##BME280 Temperature/Humidity/Pressure Sensors\n\nThe BzBox includes two [BME280 environmental sensors](www.mouser.com/ds/2/783/BST-BME280_DS001-11-844833.pdf).  One is on the main PCB to estimate the ambient t/h/p, the second is on the probe to estimate the t/h/p inside the hive.  They are read by the Photon MCU over the I2C bus.  The I2C address is differentiated on the main PCB using a pull-up resistor at the SDO/ADR port.  For more information about technical specifications and error ranges, please view the data sheet from the manufacturer.\n\n[block:image]\n{\n  \"images\": [\n    {\n      \"image\": []\n    }\n  ]\n}\n[/block]\n\n##INMP401 Omnidirectional Microphone\n\nThe [INMP401](https://www.invensense.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/INMP401.pdf) microphone located on the beehive probe PCB was based on SparkFun’s MEMS Microphone Breakout circuit.  It is used to record audio data from the bee hive.  The microphone output is put through an amplifier of 66V/V and then read with the Photon’s 12bit analog-to-digital convertor at a sample rate of 6.3kHz.  The audio data is streamed to our application servers (via WiFi) and also processed on-board to determine the activity of the bees.\n\n[block:image]\n{\n  \"images\": [\n    {\n      \"image\": [\n        \"https://files.readme.io/d495f29-Screen_Shot_2017-06-16_at_12.41.49_PM.png\",\n        \"Screen Shot 2017-06-16 at 12.41.49 PM.png\",\n        2096,\n        926,\n        \"#848484\"\n      ]\n    }\n  ]\n}\n[/block]\n##MicroSD Memory Card Socket (optional)\n\nThe BzBox has the footprint for a microSD memory card socket.  Currently, there is no firmware support for this feature, but the hardware connections are all there to read/write to the memory card.\n\n\n##Solar Power\n\nThe BzBox is an ‘energy-neutral’ device powered by a solar array charging a lithium-ion battery.  The [standard solar array](https://www.sparkfun.com/products/13781) used is a 2W, 7V panel with a 5.5x2.1 mm barrel input.  The [standard Li-Ion battery](https://www.sparkfun.com/products/341) is a 3.7V 850mAh package. With the standard configuration, the BzBox would need about 40 minutes of full sunshine each day to maintain it’s battery charge.  From a full charge, the battery should last about 3 days. \n\nThe capacity can be easily upgraded for lower sunlight areas.  For example, a 3.5W, 7V panel in conjunction with a 3.7V 2000mAh battery would increase your charge capacity.\n\n\n##Power Consumption\n\nThe BzBox is designed to be an ‘energy-neutral’ device.  By connecting the appropriate solar panel and correct battery size, the device will stay powered without any external sources.
\nHere is a reference table that estimates the power consumption of the various components of the BzBox hardware.\n\n\n[block:image]\n{\n  \"images\": [\n    {\n      \"image\": [\n        \"https://files.readme.io/67c85d6-Screen_Shot_2017-06-16_at_12.48.25_PM.png\",\n        \"Screen Shot 2017-06-16 at 12.48.25 PM.png\",\n        1386,\n        578,\n        \"#b3b3b3\"\n      ]\n    }\n  ]\n}\n[/block]\n##Adding to the Board\n\nThe BzBox is hacker-friendly!  The hardware and firmware are all published in an open-source repository and can be accessed and modified as desired.  There are many more sensors that you may want to add to the hardware.  \n\nThere are two main protocols for adding more sensors.  The first is via 12bit-ADC (analog-to-digital conversion).  The A1 port of the Photon MCU is broken out on the main PCB (A1-EXT).  Connect a voltage to this port and it can be read in the application by adjusting the firmware.\n\n\nThe I2C bus is also broken out on the main PCB (I2C-EXT).  You may connect a I2C compatible device/sensor and read it through the MCU with the appropriate firmware changes.  The pull-up resistors for the bus are already present.\n\n\n##Documents and Links\n\n[Particle Reference](https://docs.particle.io/datasheets/photon-datasheet/)\n[Eagle Design Files](https://github.com/opensourcebeehives/BuzzBox)\n[Beta Firmware](https://github.com/opensourcebeehives/BzBox_BETA)\nForum Link\n\n**Datasheets**\n[BQ24074](www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/bq24074.pdf)\n[BQ27441](www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/bq27441-g1.pdf)\n[ADXL345](www.mouser.com/ds/2/609/ADXL345-879145.pdf)\n[BME280](www.mouser.com/ds/2/783/BST-BME280_DS001-11-844833.pdf)\n[INMP401](https://www.invensense.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/INMP401.pdf)","excerpt":"BzBox Beta v1.0","slug":"hardware-documentation","type":"basic","title":"Hardware Documentation"}

Hardware Documentation

BzBox Beta v1.0

## Overview The BzBox Hardware is a custom shield based around the [Particle Photon](https://www.particle.io/) platform designed to monitor and report on the health and status of a beehive. The board includes an integrated Li-Ion battery charging and monitoring circuit, solar power input, an accelerometer, a temperature/humidity/barometric pressure (t/h/bp) sensor, a micro-SD memory card socket, and breakouts for additional sensors add-ons via I2C or analog-input readings. A secondary board which includes another t/h/bp sensor and an omnidirectional MEMS microphone and amplifier, is used to measure the environment inside of a beehive. External components needed to operate the BuzzBox are the Particle Photon, solar panel, Li-Ion battery, WiFi antenna, and a USB-B-mini cable. All the components you need are in included in the package. [block:image] { "images": [ { "image": [ "https://files.readme.io/f0d551f-FullSizeRender.jpg", "FullSizeRender.jpg", 3024, 4032, "#948164" ] } ] } [/block] ## Component Description An overview of the hardware components are shown in the block diagram. Detailed descriptions of each block are below. Links to the hardware design files, datasheets, firmware, and more are at the bottom of the document. [block:image] { "images": [ { "image": [ "https://files.readme.io/368c78d-Screen_Shot_2017-06-30_at_2.29.07_PM.png", "Screen Shot 2017-06-30 at 2.29.07 PM.png", 1596, 896, "#e5dccc" ] } ] } [/block] **Particle Photon** The Particle Photon is a tiny WiFi development kit for creating connected projects and products. Sporting a 120MHz ARM Cortex M3 and built-in WiFi, the Photon is not only powerful but easy to use. The small form factor is ideal for IoT projects with cloud connectivity. An [external 2.4GHz antenna](http://www.mouser.com/Search/ProductDetail.aspx?qs=7h3O1UVlCGNeABMKKg0dsw%3d%3d) is added to increase the WiFi range. Each set of BzBox Hardware requires a Particle Photon board to be plugged into the headers for it to function. The beta firmware is written for the Particle platform and the peripheral I/O is mapped accordingly. Please see Photon documentation available on particle.io for technical specifications. [block:image] { "images": [ { "image": [ "https://files.readme.io/afcc32c-Screen_Shot_2017-06-16_at_12.36.30_PM.png", "Screen Shot 2017-06-16 at 12.36.30 PM.png", 2404, 982, "#848484" ], "caption": "" } ] } [/block] **Pin Descriptions** Pin 1 - VIN: Input voltage to the Photon from Lithium Polymer battery. Should be between 3.6 and 5.5 Volts. Pin 2, 21 - GND: Ground connection for Photon and rest of PCB. Pin 7 - 10, SPI1: Pins mapped to Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) configuration. Connected to microSD socket for reading/writing memory card. (not used) Pin 11 - Analog Input: Optional 0-3.3V 12-bit analog-to-digital input that has a breakout on the PCB (A1-EXT) Pin 12 - AUD IN: ADC input from microphone amplifier circuit (external connector J3) Pin 13, 14 - I2C: Inter-chip interface for reading/writing the BME280 t/h/bp sensors, accelerometer, and battery monitoring chips. Additional devices may be added via the I2C-EXT breakout on the PCB. 4.7kOhm pull-up resistors are already present on the board. Pin 15 - INT: Interrupt input from ADXL345 accelerometer. Pin 16 - CD: Card-detect input for use with microSD card socket (not used) Pin 24 - 3V3: Regulated 3.3V output from Photon PCB. Used as output to power peripheral chips. 100mA MAX. ##BQ24074 Li-Po Charger and Power Path Manager The [BQ24074](www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/bq24074.pdf) circuit is based on the SparkFun Battery Babysitter with slight modifications for our application. This circuit receives the solar-panel power (V_SOLAR max 10.5V) to simultaneously charge the Lithium-Ion battery and the power the device. It is currently configured to output a maximum of 1.5A. [block:image] { "images": [ { "image": [ "https://files.readme.io/6dc19b2-Screen_Shot_2017-06-16_at_12.37.26_PM.png", "Screen Shot 2017-06-16 at 12.37.26 PM.png", 1674, 948, "#848484" ] } ] } [/block] A 10k NTC thermistor from the battery pack may be connected to R24 on the PCB for extra safety precautions. The red LED will light up when the Li-Ion battery is being charged. ##BQ27441 Fuel Gauge The [BQ27441](www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/bq27441-g1.pdf) is also based on the SparkFun Battery Babysitter. The chip reads the impedance of the battery via a 0.01 Ohm shunt and outputs the voltage, current, state-of-charge-and battery health via the I2C protocol to the Photon MCU. We read these values within the BzBox firmware and report the significant values to the application server. [block:image] { "images": [ { "image": [ "https://files.readme.io/f5a0d48-Screen_Shot_2017-06-16_at_12.41.12_PM.png", "Screen Shot 2017-06-16 at 12.41.12 PM.png", 1704, 862, "#848484" ] } ] } [/block] ##ADXL345 3-axis Accelerometer The [ADXL345 accelerometer](www.mouser.com/ds/2/609/ADXL345-879145.pdf) is used in the BzBox for theft detection. When the BzBox PCB is tilted or jilted, the ADXL345 sends an interrupt signal to the Photon MCU which is then passed on to the application server. The settings of the ADXL345 are communicated via the I2C protocol during the initial startup of the firmware. [block:image] { "images": [ { "image": [ "https://files.readme.io/ee547c8-Screen_Shot_2017-06-16_at_12.40.23_PM.png", "Screen Shot 2017-06-16 at 12.40.23 PM.png", 1740, 836, "#a44c4c" ] } ] } [/block] ##BME280 Temperature/Humidity/Pressure Sensors The BzBox includes two [BME280 environmental sensors](www.mouser.com/ds/2/783/BST-BME280_DS001-11-844833.pdf). One is on the main PCB to estimate the ambient t/h/p, the second is on the probe to estimate the t/h/p inside the hive. They are read by the Photon MCU over the I2C bus. The I2C address is differentiated on the main PCB using a pull-up resistor at the SDO/ADR port. For more information about technical specifications and error ranges, please view the data sheet from the manufacturer. [block:image] { "images": [ { "image": [] } ] } [/block] ##INMP401 Omnidirectional Microphone The [INMP401](https://www.invensense.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/INMP401.pdf) microphone located on the beehive probe PCB was based on SparkFun’s MEMS Microphone Breakout circuit. It is used to record audio data from the bee hive. The microphone output is put through an amplifier of 66V/V and then read with the Photon’s 12bit analog-to-digital convertor at a sample rate of 6.3kHz. The audio data is streamed to our application servers (via WiFi) and also processed on-board to determine the activity of the bees. [block:image] { "images": [ { "image": [ "https://files.readme.io/d495f29-Screen_Shot_2017-06-16_at_12.41.49_PM.png", "Screen Shot 2017-06-16 at 12.41.49 PM.png", 2096, 926, "#848484" ] } ] } [/block] ##MicroSD Memory Card Socket (optional) The BzBox has the footprint for a microSD memory card socket. Currently, there is no firmware support for this feature, but the hardware connections are all there to read/write to the memory card. ##Solar Power The BzBox is an ‘energy-neutral’ device powered by a solar array charging a lithium-ion battery. The [standard solar array](https://www.sparkfun.com/products/13781) used is a 2W, 7V panel with a 5.5x2.1 mm barrel input. The [standard Li-Ion battery](https://www.sparkfun.com/products/341) is a 3.7V 850mAh package. With the standard configuration, the BzBox would need about 40 minutes of full sunshine each day to maintain it’s battery charge. From a full charge, the battery should last about 3 days. The capacity can be easily upgraded for lower sunlight areas. For example, a 3.5W, 7V panel in conjunction with a 3.7V 2000mAh battery would increase your charge capacity. ##Power Consumption The BzBox is designed to be an ‘energy-neutral’ device. By connecting the appropriate solar panel and correct battery size, the device will stay powered without any external sources.
 Here is a reference table that estimates the power consumption of the various components of the BzBox hardware. [block:image] { "images": [ { "image": [ "https://files.readme.io/67c85d6-Screen_Shot_2017-06-16_at_12.48.25_PM.png", "Screen Shot 2017-06-16 at 12.48.25 PM.png", 1386, 578, "#b3b3b3" ] } ] } [/block] ##Adding to the Board The BzBox is hacker-friendly! The hardware and firmware are all published in an open-source repository and can be accessed and modified as desired. There are many more sensors that you may want to add to the hardware. There are two main protocols for adding more sensors. The first is via 12bit-ADC (analog-to-digital conversion). The A1 port of the Photon MCU is broken out on the main PCB (A1-EXT). Connect a voltage to this port and it can be read in the application by adjusting the firmware. The I2C bus is also broken out on the main PCB (I2C-EXT). You may connect a I2C compatible device/sensor and read it through the MCU with the appropriate firmware changes. The pull-up resistors for the bus are already present. ##Documents and Links [Particle Reference](https://docs.particle.io/datasheets/photon-datasheet/) [Eagle Design Files](https://github.com/opensourcebeehives/BuzzBox) [Beta Firmware](https://github.com/opensourcebeehives/BzBox_BETA) Forum Link **Datasheets** [BQ24074](www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/bq24074.pdf) [BQ27441](www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/bq27441-g1.pdf) [ADXL345](www.mouser.com/ds/2/609/ADXL345-879145.pdf) [BME280](www.mouser.com/ds/2/783/BST-BME280_DS001-11-844833.pdf) [INMP401](https://www.invensense.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/INMP401.pdf)